Three of those chains have a long-lived isotope (or nuclide) near the top; this long-lived isotope is a bottleneck in the process through which the chain flows very slowly, and keeps the chain below them "alive" with flow. The three long-lived nuclides are uranium-238 (half-life=4.5 billion years), uranium-235 (half-life=700 million years) and thorium-232 (half-life=14 billion years). The fourth chain has no such long lasting bottleneck isotope, so almost all of the isotopes in that chain have long since decayed down to very near the stability at the bottom. Near the end of that chain is bismuth-209, which was long thought to be stable. Recently, however, bismuth-209 was found to be unstable with a half-life of 19 billion billion years; it is the last step before stable thallium-205. In the distant past, around the time that the solar system formed, there were more kinds of unstable high-weight isotopes available, and the four chains were longer with isotopes that have since decayed away. Today we have manufactured extinct isotopes, which again take their former places: plutonium-239, the nuclear bomb fuel, as the major example has a half-life of "only" 24,500 years, and decays by alpha emission into uranium-235. In particular, we have through the large-scale production of neptunium-237 successfully resurrected the hitherto extinct fourth chain. The tables below hence start the four decay chains at isotopes of californium with mass numbers from 249 to 252.
The Deep Dive is a collection of three missions which are pre-seeded, meaning that they will be the same layout every time you play. The missions require two primary objectives to be completed before the Drop Pod can be summoned, with Mutators having a much higher chance of occurring whereas other features such as Crafting Materials and Machine Events are disabled. All three levels must be played in sequence with each mission granting extra rewards if completed. The status of the Dwarves including each player's individual health and ammo as well as the Team Depository is carried over between missions. There are also Elite Deep Dives, which are significantly more difficult but offer better rewards. Enemy spawns will never be the same unless it is an objective specific target.
Regular Tiles are the most common and easiest tiles. It enables the use of Monkey Knowledge, and its effect can stack with Relics Knowledges. Any Team Player who claims a regular tile will gain rewards, albeit the least rewards compared to the other types of tiles. These tiles are comprised of mostly Beginner maps, but Intermediate maps can also appear.
Banner Tiles are a harder version of Regular Tiles. It disables use of Monkey Knowledge but not Relic Knowledge. Any Team Player who claims a banner tile will gain bonus rewards, such as more Monkey Money and Team Trophies. These tiles are comprised of Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced maps. Most of these tiles do not have a hero available.
Similar to Banner Tiles, but instead of giving bonus Team Trophies these reward the team with Relic Knowledge. The specific Relic Knowledge that a Relic tile grants is hidden until the team's territory is adjacent to the tile. Points earned from capturing this tile are less than that from a Banner Tile but unlock special perks that may assist in boosting future captures. These tiles are comprised of Beginner, Intermediate, and Advanced maps. These tiles are the most likely to contain one of either a speed, health or a regrow rate increase (although there are never modifiers on boss tiles).
Natural pruning in young redwood stands often is not good. Although live crowns may be limited to the upper third of the trunk, dead limbs are persistent. Branch stubs, although decayed, may remain more than 50 years. In old trees, some branch stubs have affected the quality of the timber over a 200-year period. Trees in the intermediate crown class, however, often prune well naturally, and some trees in a heavily stocked stand have clean trunks for 23 to 30 m (75 to 100 ft) at 85 years.
Pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD, r2) was calculated for all SNPs on each chromosome. For each pair of SNPs, the relationship between pairwise distance and r2 was then calculated using a Gaussian kernel smoother (σ = 500). Across all chromosomes, this yielded an average baseline LD (r2) of 0.12 (Fig. 2, Additional file 2: Figure S2, Additional file 3). LD decayed to less than 0.3 r2 by an average of 39.7 Kb, however it is important to note that regions of substantially higher LD were identified across the genome, most notably, on chromosomes with known conversion loci, the most extreme of which were found on chromosomes 6 and 9, in the regions of Ma1/Dw2 and Dw1 respectively (Fig. 2, Additional file 2: Figure S2, Additional file 3) . These areas of high local LD were taken into account when interpreting the results of the GWAS experiments. 2b1af7f3a8