The casted specimens were machined in the different casting blocks to remove the binder and to measure the initial dimensions. The specimens were then heat-treated for 9 h at 900 °C in a vacuum furnace. Afterwards, a tensile test was performed on the YII-geometry for each alloy in accordance with EN ISO 6892-1 . The tests were carried out by means of a Zwick/Roell Z005 pendulum machine with a cross-head speed of 10 mm/min and a load cell of 500 kN. For the tensile tests, the UTS and elongation at fracture were calculated by using the measured values of the cross-head displacement and the load drop during the tensile tests. The tensile tests were carried out with the specimens from the YII-geometry (indicated by red arrows in Fig. 5) while the cylinders were tested on the YIV-geometry (marked by blue arrows in Fig. 5). The results of the tensile tests are reported in Table 7. It can be noted that the austenitic steel shows a significant increase in strength and ductility. After the thermal treatment, the yield stress increases from approximately 390 to 450 MPa and the elongation at fracture from approximately 25% to approximately 34%. Furthermore, the cylinder metallographic test piece was machined out of the cylinder geometry to also measure the initial dimensions of the metallographic section (Fig. 4). The UTS of the cylinder geometry is approximately 430 Mpa, which represents a UTS increase of 20% compared to the YII-geometry. However, the cylinder specimens exhibit a higher elongation at fracture of approximately 45% compared to the YII- and YIV-geometry. This is also attributed to the fact that the precipitation hardening and the microstructure refinement effect of the Mg treatment lead to an increase in the strength, particularly at the grain boundary. The reason for the production of SGI is the heterogeneous hardening of the casted material. The Mg treatment leads to a significant increase in the hardness due to the formation of an Mg-rich second phase (Al2Mg-phase), which is also beneficial for a higher strength. After the Mg treatment, the casted material exhibits a homogeneous and fine grain structure. The excellent castability of the cylinder geometry is directly related to the fine grain structure.
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